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离子交换树脂是什么及种类介绍--大连离子交换树脂-大连软化水设备-大连离子交换设备

2009-12-01 12:34:01

 离子交换树脂是什么及种类介绍--大连离子交换树脂-大连软化水设备-大连离子交换设备

一、氢型阳离子交换树脂是什么?

氢型阳离子交换树脂(有时简称「氢型树脂」)是一种人造有机聚合物产品。常用的原料是:苯乙烯或丙烯酸(酯),先经过聚合反应生成具有三度空间立体网状结构的聚合物骨架(树脂母体),再于骨架上导入不同的「化学活性基」而成。由于它的活性基,如磺酸基(-SO3H)、羧基(-COOH)等,都含有活性氢离子,可在水中解离出来,用于与其它阳离子进行交换,所以特别在阳离子树脂名称之前再冠上「氢型」两字,以与同一系统的「钠型」种类有所区别。不过「钠型」可以利用强酸处理成为「氢型」,「氢型」也可以用「氢氧化钠」溶液处理成为「钠型」,即两型树脂实际上可以互相转换。氢型阳离子交换树脂不溶于水和一般溶剂。和其它离子交换树脂一般,常被制成颗粒状,外观看起来有些像鱼卵,粒径大约在0.3 ~ 1.2 mm之间,但大部分在0.4 ~ 0.6 mm范围内。化学性质相当安定,摸起来硬而有弹性,机械强度也足够承受相当压力,颜色由白色至近乎黑色都有,颜色浅时呈透明状,深时呈半透明状,都有光鲜亮丽的树脂光泽。氢型阳离子交换树脂常应用的地方,就是硬水的软化,即让硬水流过树脂层,把硬水中的「硬度离子」,如钙、镁等离子吸收在树脂中,就变成不带硬度离子的软水了,这也是阳离子交换树脂初被制造的主要目的,但它在工业上应用没有「钠型」来的多,因为在软化过程中,它会直接释出氢离子,使水质呈酸性,可能会因此腐蚀相关金属设备。依需要的不同,它也可以应用到水质预处理工艺中,用作软化水质及降低pH值之用。

二、种类

 树脂主要性质和类别之差异,在于它们的化学活性基种类之不同,因此氢型阳离子交换树脂可依活性基(一种官能基)种类不同,分成两种:强酸性阳离子交换树脂(strong- acid anion exchange resin)和弱酸性阳离子交换树脂(weak - acid anion exchange resin)。强酸性阳离子交换树脂系因它的活性氢离子在水中很容易解离而得名,其骨架均为聚苯乙烯系统,主要产品是「磺酸型」强酸性阳离易解离而得名,骨架均为聚丙烯酸系统,主要产品是「羧酸型」弱酸性阳离子交换树脂,通常颜色较?白色或淡黄色球状子交换树脂,通常颜色较深,棕黄色至综色球状颗粒,以综色常见;反之,弱酸性阳离子交换树脂则是因它的活性氢离子在水中比较不容颗粒,以淡黄色常见。如果用化学反应来表示这两种树脂的差异性,我们可以描述如下(R代表树脂母体): 强酸性: R-SO3H → R-SO3- + H+ (H+容易解离,在水中呈强酸性)弱酸性: R-COOH → R-COO- + H+ (H+不易解离,在水中呈弱酸性) 由于强酸性阳离子交换树脂的解离能力很强,所以在任何酸性或碱性溶液中均能解离和产生离子交换作用,其作用pH范围介于1~14。反之,弱酸性阳离子交换树脂的解离能力很弱,只能在弱酸性至碱性溶液中解离和产生离子交换作用,其作用pH范围仅介于5~14。

Ion-exchange resin is introduced and dalian, ion exchange resin - dalian demineralized water equipment - dalian ion exchange equipment

A type of cation exchange resin, hydrogen is what? Hydrogen type of cation exchange resin (sometimes referred to as "hydrogen resin") is a kind of man-made organic polymer products. The most commonly used material is: styrene or acrylic esters), (polymerization with three-dimensional stereoscopic mesh structure of polymer matrix resin skeleton (again), in the import of different "frame" chemical activity. Because of its activities, such as sulfo (SO3H -), carboxyl (COOH), - contains active hydrogen ions, but in the water and used to disintegrate and other cationic exchange, so special in cationic resin before name "type" two characters, hydrogen with the same system ", "different kinds of sodium. But "sodium" can use acid treatment "hydrogen type", "hydrogen" can also use the "naoh aqueous" become "type", namely, sodium two resin can actually mutual conversion. Hydrogen type of cation exchange resin insoluble in water and solvents. And other ion exchange resin, are often made of granular appearance looks somewhat like eggs, particle size in about 0.3 ~ 120 mm, but most in between 0.4 ~ 0.6 mm range. Chemical properties rather stable, feels hard and elastic, mechanical strength is enough to withstand considerable pressure, the color white to black, color is light with transparent, deep translucent, glamorous sheen of resin. Hydrogen type of cation exchange resin, the most commonly used is hard to soften, namely the hard resin layer, through the "hard", such as hardness ion calcium and magnesium in resin absorption of plasma, became not with soft hardness ions, which is made of cation exchange resin was originally, but it is the main purpose of the industrial application of "no" sodium, because the softening process, it can directly to release hydrogen ions, make water, may therefore become acidic corrosion of metal equipment related. According to the different needs, it can also be applied to the water quality in the process of pretreatment, used to soften water and lower pH value.

Second, the main properties and class type resin, the difference is that they are of different kinds of chemical activity, therefore, hydrogen type of cation exchange resin in active base (a), different kinds of the senses is divided into two kinds: strong acid cation exchange resin (anion exchange resin strong acid -) and weakly acidic cationic exchange resin (anion exchange resin shift - acid). Strong acid cation exchange resin, because it is the active hydrogen ions in water easily and disintegrate for its skeleton polystyrene system, the main products are "sulfonic acid type" acid-cation from easy disintegrate named skeleton are polyacrylic acid system, the main products are "carboxylic acid type" weak acidic cationic exchange resin, usually color? White or light yellow ball issuing exchange resin, usually darker, yellowish-brown color to the above, to a spherical particles, the most common color, Conversely, weakly acidic cationic exchange resin, because it is the active hydrogen ions in water is not to pale yellow particles, the most common. If use chemical reactions to these two kinds of resin, we can describe below (R) : strong acidic resin matrix SO3H - > R: R H + + - SO3 - (H + to disintegrate, in water is strongly acidic) weakly acidic: R - COOH - R H + + - COO - H + (not disintegrate, a weak acid) in water because of strong acid cation exchange resin disintegrate ability strong, so in any acidic or alkaline solution can disintegrate and produce the effect of ion exchange, pH range between 1-14. Conversely, weakly acidic cationic exchange resin disintegrate ability is very weak, only weakly acidic to disintegrate in alkaline solution and its effect, ion exchange effect -ph range between 5 ~ 14 only.

经典案例介绍